Mono-specific antibodies against the human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP4A11 and an antibody that binds to CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 have been produced by immunising rabbits with synthetic peptides representing small regions of each of these P450 enzymes. The specificity of the antibodies was confirmed by immunoblotting using recombinant P450 enzymes and samples of human hepatic microsomal fraction. Each of the antibodies bound only to their respective target P450 enzyme(s). The relative intensity of immunoreactive bands was compared with a variety of P450 activities and correlations were found between CYP1A2 and phenacetin O-deethylase activity, CYP2A6 and coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity, CYP2C9 and tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity, CYP2C19 and S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase activity, CYP2D6 and debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity, CYP2E1 and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activity, CYP3A4 and midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity, and CYP4A11 and lauric acid 12-hydroxylase activity. A proportion of the 30 liver samples examined lacked CYP2A6 (7%), CYP2C19 (10%) or CYP2D6 (13%), consistent with the polymorphic expression of these P450 enzymes in human liver. Although CYP3A5 was detected in most individuals (97%), expression was polymorphic with 20% containing substantially higher levels. CYP2B6 was expressed in 20% of the human liver samples, with one sample containing a particularly high level. No immunodetectable CYP1A1 or CYP1B1 was found, consistent with the low level of expression of these P450 enzymes in human liver. The results demonstrate the utility of the antipeptide approach for producing specific antibodies against human P450 enzymes, enabling a comprehensive panel of antibodies against human P450 enzymes to be produced.