Case-control study of corticosteroids and other drugs that either precipitate or protect from the development of scleroderma renal crisis

Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Sep;41(9):1613-9. doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199809)41:9<1613::AID-ART11>3.0.CO;2-O.


Objective: To determine whether the initiation of corticosteroids or other types of therapy affects the development of scleroderma renal crisis (SRC).

Methods: Using a case-control study, 110 patients with systemic sclerosis who developed SRC between 1981 and 1993 were closely matched with controls on sex, race, age, disease duration, skin score, levels of creatine phosphokinase, and presence of tendon friction rubs. Corticosteroid use was determined prior to the onset of SRC in cases or prior to the first visit in controls. Cases were compared with matched controls using McNemar's matched-pair analysis and conditional logistic regression analysis. The effects of other drugs, including D-penicillamine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, were also evaluated.

Results: In the 6 months prior to SRC onset or to the first visit, high-dose corticosteroids (> or =15 mg/day prednisone or equivalent) were administered significantly more frequently in SRC patients (36%) than in the controls (12%) (McNemar's odds ratio 4.37, 95% confidence interval 2.03-9.43, P < 0.0001). New use of low-dose steroids, continuous use of any steroid dose, NSAIDs, calcium channel blockers, and ACE inhibitors were not associated with an increased risk of SRC. Antecedent D-penicillamine therapy may have been protective against the development of SRC in controls.

Conclusion: This retrospective case-control study has shown a significant association between antecedent high-dose corticosteroid therapy and the development of SRC. These results should discourage the use of high-dose corticosteroids in patients with early diffuse scleroderma who are at increased risk of developing SRC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / prevention & control
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Contraindications
  • Female
  • Glucocorticoids / adverse effects
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Penicillamine / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / complications*
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / drug therapy
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Penicillamine