The possibility that viable male-sterile mutations occur in vital genes and the role played by lethal mutations and viable male-steriles in male gametogenesis were studied. Five sterile loci were identified among the 30 most proximal vital loci of the X-chromosome and two of them were shown to be allelic with lethal mutations. Fertility test on gynanders for nonautonomous lethal mutations proved that vital genes operate autonomously in male gonads, independently of their effect on somatic tissues. Fertility tests of ts lethals, shifted to the nonpermissive temperature after the TSP, showed that 40% of vital genes function in male gonads. It is further shown that about the same proportion of vital genes is operating in female gonads and that the two groups overlap by about 70%. The role of viable and lethal male gametogenesis is discussed in detail.