The cortical visual system consists of many richly interconnected areas. Each area is characterized by more or less specific receptive field tuning properties. However, these tuning properties reflect only a subset of the interactions that occur within and between areas. Neuronal responses may be modulated by perceptual context or attention. These modulations reflect lateral interactions within areas and feedback from higher to lower areas. Recent work is beginning to unravel how horizontal and feedback connections each contribute to modulatory effects and what the role of these modulations is in vision. Whereas receptive field tuning properties reflect feedforward processing, modulations evoked by horizontal and feedback connections may reflect the integration of information that underlies perception.