Although CD20 is considered to be a representative marker for B lymphocytes, the antigen is weakly expressed on a small subset of normal T lymphocytes. A 60-year-old man developed pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly due to clonal proliferation of atypical lymphocytes that were weakly positive for CD20. The leukaemic cells were also positive for T-cell antigens such as CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD8 and T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta8 and for activation antigens such as CD38 and HLA-DR, but were negative for CD19, CD21, CD22, CD25. Southern blot analysis revealed rearrangement of the TCR-beta gene and a germline configuration of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. This is the first report of a case of clonal expansion of CD20dim T lymphocytes.