Thrombotic diseases in young women and the influence of oral contraceptives

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Sep;179(3 Pt 2):S62-7. doi: 10.1053/ob.1998.v179.a91674.

Abstract

Objective: In the evaluation of the clinical impact of thrombotic diseases in young women, age-specific incidence rates must be calculated for both arterial and venous thrombotic diseases, but also the case-fatality rate and figures for the clinical consequences among those who survive thrombosis must be included. The aim of this analysis was to quantify the clinical impacts of both arterial and venous thrombotic diseases among young, nonpregnant women and thereafter to assess the influences of oral contraceptives on these measures.

Study design: Nationwide register data on the morbidity and mortality of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and thrombotic stroke in Denmark, 1980-1993, and 3 ongoing case-control studies to assess the influence of oral contraceptives on the risk for development of these thrombotic diseases.

Results: In women 15-29 years old venous thromboembolism is about twice as common as arterial complications, whereas in women 30-44 years old the number of arterial complications exceeds that of venous diseases by about 50%. The mortality rate from arterial diseases is 3.5 times higher than that from venous diseases among women <30 years old and 8.5 times higher than that from venous diseases in women 30-44 years old. The proportion of women with a significant disability among women who had an arterial complication was about 30%; the proportion was about 5% among women with venous thromboembolism.

Conclusion: Anticipating a differential influence on venous and arterial diseases from oral contraceptives with second- and third-generation progestogens, it was calculated that users of oral contraceptives with second-generation progestogens had 30% greater increased risk of thrombotic diseases, 260% greater increased risk of thrombotic deaths, and 220% greater increased risk of thrombotic disability than users of oral contraceptives with third-generation progestogens.

PIP: The influence of oral contraceptive (OC) use in young women on the risk of development of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and thrombotic stroke was assessed through an analysis of nationwide register data from Denmark for 1980-93 and for 1994-95 from three ongoing case-control studies. All three diseases increased rapidly with increasing age; the arterial diseases increased almost exponentially, while the venous diseases increased more linearly. Venous thromboembolism was almost twice as prevalent as arterial complications in women 15-29 years old, while the number of arterial complications exceeded that of venous diseases by about 50% in women 30-44 years of age. Mortality from arterial diseases was 3.5 times higher than that from venous diseases among women under 30 years of age and 8.5 times higher than that from venous diseases in women 30-44 years old. The proportion of women with a significant disability was about 30% among those with an arterial complication; this proportion was 5% among women with venous thromboembolism. Users of OCs with second-generation progestogens had a 30% greater increased risk of thrombotic diseases, a 260% greater increased risk of thrombotic mortality, and a 220% greater increased risk of thrombotic disability than users of OCs with third-generation progestogens.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / adverse effects*
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Myocardial Infarction / chemically induced
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Registries
  • Risk
  • Thromboembolism / chemically induced
  • Thromboembolism / epidemiology
  • Thrombosis / chemically induced*
  • Thrombosis / epidemiology*
  • Thrombosis / mortality

Substances

  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal