Background & aims: Thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and possible association of the factor V Leiden mutation with the development of thrombosis in patients with IBD.
Methods: This retrospective study included 11 patients with IBD and arterial or venous thrombosis and 51 patients with IBD and no history of thrombosis who were matched for age, sex, ethnic/racial origin, and type of IBD (controls). The presence of the factor V Leiden mutation was determined by coagulation assay and confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction method.
Results: Four of 11 IBD patients (36%) with thrombosis and 2 of 51 IBD controls (4%) were heterozygotes for the factor V Leiden mutation (relative risk, 14.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-169.25; P = 0.009, Fisher exact test). All thrombotic events in the patients with activated protein C resistance were venous with a calculated prevalence of 50% (4 of 8 patients) and a relative risk of venous thrombosis in IBD patients with factor V Leiden of 23 (95% confidence interval, 2-294; P = 0.005).
Conclusions: In patients with IBD, inheritance of the factor V Leiden mutation results in a significant increased risk of venous thrombosis.