Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate to produce phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate as a precursor of two second messengers, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and as a regulator of many cellular proteins involved in signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization. Despite PIP5K playing such an essential role in a number of physiological processes, much still remains to be made clear about its association with plants. Searching the Arabidopsis expression sequence tag database against already known yeast and mammalian PIP5K cDNAs, we identified two clones which partly encode the same Arabidopsis PIP5K and isolated a corresponding full-length cDNA encoding a protein that we designated AtPIP5K1. Recombinant AtPIP5K1 expressed in Escherichia coli possessed a PIP5K activity in vitro. Due to some structural and biochemical differences, AtPIP5K1 was not categorized as either a type I or type II PIP5K. The expression of the AtPIP5K1 mRNA was induced rapidly by treating Arabidopsis plants with drought, salt and abscisic acid, which suggests that AtPIP5K11 is involved in water-stress signal transduction. These data give evidence for a close link between phosphoinositide signaling cascades and water-stress responses in plants.