A newly available antibody to the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) has made it possible to determine the distribution of the NK-1r receptor in human tissue. In the present study the distribution of the NK-1r and substance P have been determined in the human antrum and duodenum by immunocytochemistry. The NK-1r was present on myenteric and submucosal neurons and nerve fibers of the gastro-enteric nervous system. In addition, the receptor was present on spindle-shaped cells in the circular muscle layer, endothelial cells and a population of mucosal cells. In the submucosal plexus NK-1r immunoreactive neurons were surrounded by substance P containing fibers. These results indicate an extensive cellular expression of the NK-1r in the human antrum and duodenum.