Diamine oxidase is continuously released from the intestinal mucosa and carried to the circulation by the lymphatics. The effect of nutrients on this release was examined. Rats were prepared with duodenal and intestinal lymph cannulas. Test mixtures of lipid emulsions containing triolein, oleic acid, or tricaprylin and solutions of carbohydrate and protein were infused into the duodenum. The enzyme release and triglyceride transport were determined and in some experiments were done in the presence and absence of Pluronic L-81, an inhibitor of chylomicron formation, and aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of diamine oxidase activity. The data indicate that nonlipid nutrients did not increase diamine oxidase activity in the intestinal lymph, but the mucosal tissue content was significantly reduced in the distal small intestine, particularly after protein infusion. Triglycerides and fatty acids increased diamine oxidase in the intestinal lymph, and the longer-chain triglyceride was more effective. Inhibition of triglyceride transport did not interfere with the enzyme release, and the inhibition of diamine oxidase activity had no significant effect on lipid absorption. According to our observations, only lipids increase intestinal lymph diamine oxidase. Nonfat nutrients appear to increase diamine oxidase in the intestinal lumen. Diamine oxidase is not directly required for lipid absorption.