Tumor necrosis factor locus: genetic organisation and biological implications

Hum Immunol. 1998 Sep;59(9):571-9. doi: 10.1016/s0198-8859(98)00056-1.


TNF genes determine strength, effectiveness, and duration of local and systemic inflammatory reactions, as well as repair and recovery from infectious and toxic agents. Multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of TNF factors are conditioned by their profound effects on metabolism of many cell types, their activation state, cell survival and others. TNF genes show strong linkage disequilibrium with HLA class I and class II genes and with other genes in the MHC region relevant to immuneregulation. Structural or regulatory defects in TNF genes may contribute to pathogenesis of MHC associated diseases especially those with inflammatory and autoimmune components.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex
  • Multigene Family
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology


  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha