The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is expressed in sensory neurons. Expression of several neuropeptides is up-regulated in sensory neurons following inflammation. To examine whether also PACAP expression is regulated by inflammation, PACAP expression in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was determined, using in situ hybridization, after unilateral adjuvant-induced inflammation in the rat paw. At 12 h and day 3, but not day 21, the percentage of neurons expressing PACAP mRNA was greater in the innervating L5 DRG. Similarly, PACAP mRNA expression in individual neurons was higher in the innervating L5 DRG at 12 h and day 3, but not day 21. Up-regulated PACAP expression following adjuvant injection suggests a role for PACAP in inflammation.