Synaptic function is critical for cell-cell communication and the characterization of proteins that function during vesicle formation, transport and fusion events will yield further insight into the mechanisms of synaptic transmission. We have cloned and characterized a gene product expressed in human brain called hCDCrel-1. This protein is a new member of the septin family of gene products that functions during cytokinesis in lower eukaryotes. In this study we characterize the expression of the hCDCrel-1 gene and localize the hCDCrel-1 protein to neurons in adult human brain. hCDCrel-1 co-purifies with SNAP-25 and synaptophysin marked synaptosomes, suggesting a novel function for this gene family in the brain. Our data indicate that members of the septin family of proteins may function in synaptic vesicle transport, fusion or recycling events in the human brain.