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, 70 (3), 460-83

Further Validation for the Cramer Defense Mechanism Manual

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Further Validation for the Cramer Defense Mechanism Manual

S Hibbard et al. J Pers Assess.

Abstract

This article presents psychometric properties of the Cramer Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991b) for the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943). The developmental hierarchy of defenses originally postulated by Cramer was supported in this cross-sectional sample. Gender differences and the validity of distinguishing between "mature" and "immature" levels of defense were also investigated. Findings for gender differences largely replicate those previously reported by Cramer (1987, 1991a). Results also support the view of a developmental hierarchy of defenses and the validity of distinguishing between mature and immature levels of two of the three types of defenses.

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