Background: In sensitive patients pyrazolone drugs can precipitate adverse reactions ranging from urticaria and angioedema to anaphylactic shock, presumably by immunological, IgE-mediated mechanism. However, up to now no genetic factors influencing the development of allergic reaction have been reported in this type of hypersensitivity.
Objective: The aim of our study was the investigation whether the susceptibility to development of pyrazolone drugs hypersensitivity (PDH) reactions was associated with HLA class II antigens.
Methods: To test this hypothesis we studied the distribution of HLA-DR and DQ antigens in 26 pyrazolone sensitive patients and control groups including unselected general population and clearly defined atopic and non-atopic groups.
Results: Significantly higher frequencies of DQ 7 and DR11 antigens were found in PDH group as compared with control unselected population (RR= 16.48, P < 0.0001; P(cor)< 0.002 and RR = 4.57, P = 0.0002; Pcor = 0.003 for DQ and DR antigen respectively). Similarly, statistically significant increased frequencies of DQ 7 and DR11 in patients with PDH were observed compared with atopic control group (RR= 18.43, P < 0.0001; Pcor <0.002 and RR= 6.33, P= 0.0007; Pcor =0.01, for DQ and DR antigen respectively). However, in comparison to non-atopic control group only the frequency of DQ 7 antigen was significantly increased (RR = 15.42, P = 0.0001; Pcor = 0.0015). DQ 7 antigen was present in 46.1% of PDH patients compared with 4.9%, 4.4% and 5.3% in the general population, atopic and non-atopic groups respectively, suggesting pyrazolone hypersensitivity as a trait positively correlated with this HLA antigen.
Conclusion: Our data suggest a genetic predisposition to pyrazolone hypersensitivity reactions, linked to HLA-DQ locus.