Objectives: Ventricular volume reduction surgery has been proposed by Batista to improve cardiac function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. However, limited clinical data exist to determine the efficacy of this operation. A finite element simulation is therefore used to determine the effect of volume reduction surgery on left ventricular end-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, stroke work/end-diastolic volume (preload recruitable stroke work), and stroke work/end-diastolic pressure (Starling) relationships.
Methods: End-diastole and end-systole were represented by elastic finite element models with different unloaded shapes and nonlinear material properties. End-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, preload recruitable stroke work, and Starling relationships, as well as energy expenditure per gram of unresected myocardium, were calculated. Two different types of volume reduction surgery (apical and lateral) were simulated at 10% and 20% left ventricular mass reduction.
Results: Ventricular volume reduction surgery causes diastolic compliance to shift further to the left on the pressure-volume diagram than end-systolic elastance. Volume reduction surgery increases the slope of the preload recruitable stroke work relationship (dilated cardiomyopathy 0.006 J/mL; 20% lateral volume reduction surgery 0.009 J/mL) but decreases the slope of the Starling relationship (dilated cardiomyopathy 0.028 J/mm Hg; 20% lateral volume reduction 0.023 J/mm Hg). For a given amount of resection, lateral volume reduction has a greater effect than apical volume reduction. Ten-percent and 20% lateral volume reduction reduces energy expenditure by 7% and 17%, respectively.
Conclusion: Ventricular volume reduction surgery shifts end-systolic elastance and diastolic compliance to the left on the pressure-volume diagram. The net effect on ventricular function is mixed. Volume reduction surgery increases the slope of preload recruitable stroke work, but increased diastolic compliance causes a small decrease in the Starling relationship (3 mm Hg difference between dilated cardiomyopathy and volume reduction surgery at stroke work = 0.5 J).