Longitudinal studies of Schistosoma haematobium infection in CBA mice revealed a progressive down-regulation of cellular immune responses, as measured by mitogenic and antigenic stimulation of in vitro lymphocyte cultures. Antigen-stimulated production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma by splenocytes increased progressively up to 14 weeks post infection, (four weeks after the onset of parasite egg production), before declining swiftly. Levels of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 in the same cultures remained low until 14 weeks, after which they rose rapidly as IFN-gamma declined. High levels of IL-10 coincided with the peak in IFN-gamma production, suggesting a non Th2-restricted role for this cytokine. Both total and antigen-specific immunoglobulin production confirmed parasite egg deposition as being a major stimulus for host humoral responses. The S. haematobium infection failed to elicit detectable T cell responses to the antifecundity vaccine candidate rSh28GST. However, low levels of antibody were detectable in infected mouse serum and strong IgG and IgA production was induced by vaccination with rSh28GST plus adjuvant.