The predictors of participation in a smoking cessation group among low-income women were examined. Fifty smokers were recruited from a Midwestern community primary care setting serving an uninsured, underinsured, and Medicaid population. Participants completed a questionnaire before the intervention, and eleven women chose to participate in the 6-week sessions. There were few differences between the control group (nonparticipants) and the intervention group. The intervention group had significantly higher intention-to-quit scores. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict group membership with age, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, nicotine dependence, intention-to-quit, and other smokers in the home as the predictor variables. The only two significant predictors of participation in the cessation intervention were self-efficacy and intention-to-quit smoking. The higher the intention-to-quit score and the lower the self-efficacy score (the belief that one can be successful in not smoking); the more likely these women were to participate in the group intervention. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical relevance as well as future research in the area.