We examined the relationship between infant and maternal outcomes and asthma complicating pregnancy, using historical cohort analysis of singleton live deliveries in New Jersey hospitals between 1989 and 1992 (n = 447,963). Subject mother-infant dyads were identified from linked birth certificate and maternal and newborn hospital claims data. Women with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code (493) for asthma (n = 2,289) were compared with a fourfold larger randomly selected control sample (n = 9,156) from the remaining pool of women. After controlling for the effects of important confounding variables, maternal asthma was associated with the following adverse infant outcomes: preterm infant (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.55), low birth weight (OR = 1. 32; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.58), small-for-gestational age (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.45), congenital anomalies (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.68), and increased infant hospital length of stay (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.65). The adverse maternal outcomes associated with maternal asthma were: pre-eclampsia (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.68 to 2. 83), placenta previa (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.79), cesarean delivery (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.80), and increased maternal hospital length of stay (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.60 to 2.15). The results emphasize the need for maternal asthma to be added to the list of conditions that increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.