Definitions, causes, course, and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Respir Care Clin N Am. 1998 Sep;4(3):345-58, vii.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disorder that is related to smoking in susceptible individuals. The epidemiology is complex and includes both environmental and host factors. Early identification and intervention via smoking cessation and possibly the augmentation of antioxidant defenses in the lung offer hope to prevent and forestall premature morbidity and mortality for this fourth most common cause of death in the United States.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lung Diseases, Obstructive / epidemiology
  • Lung Diseases, Obstructive / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • United States / epidemiology