Cell density-dependent gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is controlled, in part, by the quorum-sensing regulator LasR. lasR null mutants exhibited a reproducible 2-fold decrease in production of the catecholate-hydroxamate siderophore pyoverdine during grown under iron-limiting conditions. Similarly, lasI mutants defective in the biosynthesis of the autoinducer PAI-1 also exhibited a 2-fold decrease in pyoverdine production which could be largely restored upon addition of exogenous PAI-1. lasR mutants were not altered with respect to expression of the pvdD gene involved in the synthesis of the peptide portion of pyoverdine, indicating that some other pyoverdine biosynthetic gene(s) were affected by the LasRI status of the cell. This represents the first report of quorum-sensing regulation of siderophore production in bacteria and highlights the fact that cell density, while not an essential signal for pyoverdine expression, does enhance production of this siderophore.