The evolving epidemiology of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in response to control programs in Winnipeg, Canada

Am J Public Health. 1998 Oct;88(10):1496-502. doi: 10.2105/ajph.88.10.1496.


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the transmission dynamics of chlamydia and gonorrhea in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and to assess implications for control programs.

Methods: Chlamydia and gonorrhea surveillance case reports (1988 through 1995) and contact-tracing reports (1991 through 1995) were examined.

Results: High incidence rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea clustered in geographic core areas characterized by low socioeconomic status. A decline in the number of reported cases of chlamydia (61%) and gonorrhea (64%) occurred between 1988 and 1995. For chlamydia, the decline was most prominent in non-core area cases, while for gonorrhea it was similar in core and non-core areas.

Conclusions: Chlamydia and gonorrhea appear to be evolving through different epidemic phases, with chlamydia transmission, in response to a newly introduced control program, becoming more core dependent and gonorrhea transmission becoming more sporadic in the face of a sustained control effort. Focused control programs, based on an understanding of the transmission dynamics of chlamydia and gonorrhea, may make their elimination a feasible goal.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Chlamydia Infections / epidemiology*
  • Chlamydia Infections / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Gonorrhea / epidemiology*
  • Gonorrhea / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infection Control
  • Male
  • Manitoba / epidemiology
  • Poverty Areas
  • Urban Health