In this review we examine the clinical outcomes of patients who have received both bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and discuss the possible immunologic consequences of the dual transplants. We collected cases through a comprehensive literature search (MEDLINE database, English literature only) covering the years 1990 through 1997 and correspondence with the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. Our study selected case reports of patients who have undergone both bone marrow and solid organ transplants; cases in which bone marrow transplantation was undertaken as an adjunct ot induce or augment donor-specific tolerance in a recipient to the transplanted organ were excluded. Clinical characteristics included patient's demographic information, underlying disorders for each transplant, source of donor organ or tissue, time between transplants, and immunosuppressive regimens used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or graft rejection. Clinical outcomes included patient survival, complications of transplantation, and donor-specific tolerance that was experienced in many cases. Twenty-one cases of SOT after BMT and 7 cases of BMT after SOT were reviewed. Solid organ transplantations included lung, liver, cardiac, and kidney for a variety of BMT-related complications including GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, chronic renal failure, end-stage pulmonary disease, and severe cardiomyopathy. Bone marrow transplants were performed following SOT for aplastic anemia and hematologic malignancies. Clinical outcomes for patients who received both BMT and SOT were variable and depended on transplant indication and degree of histocompatibility. Prior bone marrow transplantation may tolerize for a subsequent organ transplant from the same donor. Conversely, severe GVHD may follow BMT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors following SOT. The favorable survival in this high-risk group of patients may represent a literature review bias (that is, an undetermined number of unsuccessful cases may not have been reported). Nonetheless, dual transplantation is clearly feasible in selected cases.