We compared PCR, galactomannan detection assay using a latex agglutination test and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan detection assay in detecting infection in rats experimentally infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. On day 2 after inoculation, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and nested PCR were positive for 80%, while galactomannan detection assay was positive for 60%. In addition, the positive result of nested PCR (87.5%) was higher than those of galactomannan detection assay (75%) and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (71.4%) on day 3 after inoculation. The sensitivity of nested PCR was superior to those of galactomannan detection assay and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan detection assay. The three diagnostic tests were compared with histopathological findings, and the sensitivity of three diagnostic tests was correlated with histopathological changes. In addition, the elevated levels of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan paralleled the development and progression of pulmonary aspergillosis. Our results indicate that a combination of two or three of these tests seems to provide a rapid diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and assist in the evaluation of the development and severity of invasive aspergillosis.