Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates

Eye (Lond). 1998;12 ( Pt 3b):541-7. doi: 10.1038/eye.1998.143.


The expression of five major families of visual pigments occurred early in vertebrae evolution, probably about 350-400 million years ago, before the separation of the major vertebrate classes. Phylogenetic analysis of opsin gene sequences suggests that the ancestral pigments were cone pigments, with rod pigments evolving last. Modern teleosts, reptiles and birds have genera that possess rods and four spectral classes of cone each representing one of the five visual pigment families. The complement of four spectrally distinct cone classes endows these species with the potential for tetrachromatic colour vision. In contrast, probably because of their nocturnal ancestry, mammals have rod-dominated retinas with colour vision reduced to a basic dichromatic system subserved by only two spectral classes of cone. It is only within primates, about 35 millions years ago, that mammals 're-evolved' a higher level of colour vision: trichromacy. This was achieved by a gene duplication within the longer-wave cone class to produce two spectrally distinct members of the same visual pigment family which, in conjunction with a short-wavelength pigment, provide the three spectral classes of cone necessary to subserve trichromacy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution*
  • Color Perception*
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / physiology
  • Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells / physiology
  • Rod Opsins / physiology
  • Vertebrates / physiology*


  • Rod Opsins