Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare epileptic syndrome characterized by continuous focal seizures. We report on a 16-year-old girl who died of prolonged pharmacoresistant EPC in whom we identified a 7472insC mutation within the mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA)(ser(UCN)). Additional symptoms included ataxia, lactic acidosis, myopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, severe headaches, and mental retardation. Quantification revealed 100% mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the patient, 4% in her mother, and none in her half-sister. This highly skewed mtDNA distribution is most improbable (approximately 3 x 10(-30)) if only explained by random genetic drift. Clustering of dysfunctional mitochondria and replicatory advantage of mutant mtDNA may play a role in the rapid segregation towards homoplasmy within one generation.