Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for normal B-cell receptor signalling. The lack of expression of functional Btk in humans leads to the B-cell deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA). We report here that Btk is also important for signalling via the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in platelets. GPVI is coupled to the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRgamma). The FcRgamma-chain contains a consensus sequence known as the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITAM upon GPVI stimulation is the initial step in the regulation of phospholipase C gamma2 (PLCgamma2) isoforms via the tyrosine kinase p72(Syk) (Syk) in platelets. Here we show that collagen and a collagen-related peptide (CRP), which binds to GPVI but does not bind to the integrin alpha2beta1, induced Btk tyrosine phosphorylation in platelets. Aggregation, dense granule secretion and calcium mobilisation were significantly diminished but not completely abolished in platelets from XLA patients in response to collagen and CRP. These effects were associated with a reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2. In contrast, aggregation and secretion stimulated by thrombin in Btk-deficient platelets were not significantly altered. Our results demonstrate that Btk is important for collagen signalling via GPVI, but is not essential for thrombin-mediated platelet activation.