Hospital-acquired pneumonia: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998 Sep;12(3):761-79, x. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5520(05)70209-9.


Despite improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains the number one cause of nosocomial mortality. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the incidence, epidemiology, and causes of HAP, with the appreciation that the available information is incomplete and that controversies are common, and thus the authors provide a rational approach to the initial management of HAP in immunocompetent adults. A discussion of therapy and what to do with patients who do not respond to the empiric therapy are included. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) statement on HAP has served as a foundation for this review but has been supplemented by newer literature that was not available when the ATS statement was developed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acinetobacter / drug effects
  • Acinetobacter / isolation & purification
  • Cross Infection* / epidemiology
  • Cross Infection* / etiology
  • Cross Infection* / therapy
  • Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods / drug effects
  • Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods / isolation & purification
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / drug effects
  • Gram-Positive Cocci / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Legionella / drug effects
  • Legionella / isolation & purification
  • Pneumonia* / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia* / etiology
  • Pneumonia* / therapy
  • Risk Factors