Quantitative EEG is a potentially useful tool in demonstrating the effects of treatments with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors on the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to define the profile of EEG changes during tacrine long-term treatment, for 12 months we followed 15 AD patients receiving an optimal individually tolerable dose. After 3 months theta global field power (GFP) was significantly reduced, and after 6 months both theta and delta GFP decreased. Theta GFP was still reduced after 12 months of treatment when compared to the baseline. Significant decreases in fast activities of beta 1 and beta 2 GFP were also observed. The untreated reference group (n = 10) did not show any significant changes in GFP after 12 months follow-up, although generators of theta activity had a significant shift towards posterior regions. These findings suggest that slowing in fast EEG frequencies during chronic treatment with AChE inhibitors may provide an early indicator of declining treatment efficiency.