Efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography with orally administered sodium fluorescein

Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct;126(4):560-4. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(98)00112-3.


Purpose: To report the efficacy and safety of fluorescein angiography after oral administration of fluorescein solution in a large number of patients during a period of 8 years.

Methods: A total of 1,787 patients (2,625 eyes) underwent fluorescein angiography after oral administration of sodium fluorescein at Hara Eye Hospital, Utsunomiya, Japan, between January 1989 and March 1997. The ingestible solution was 10 ml of 10% sodium fluorescein, the same material generally used for injection in conventional fluorescein angiography. Retinal photography began 15 minutes after ingestion and continued for 1 hour. The camera and the photography and film processing techniques were the same as those used for conventional fluorescein angiography using injected sodium fluorescein.

Results: In 2,554 (97.3%) of 2,625 eyes, photographs adequate for clinical use were obtained. In 1,787 patients, no anaphylactic or other severe adverse effects were observed, and only 31 patients (1.7%) experienced minimal itching, discomfort, or nausea after oral sodium fluorescein intake. For conditions such as central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, and cystoid macular edema, sufficient information for clinical use was obtained.

Conclusions: Fluorescein angiography using orally administered sodium fluorescein is generally effective and safe in standard clinical practice.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Fluorescein / administration & dosage*
  • Fluorescein / adverse effects
  • Fluorescein Angiography / methods*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / administration & dosage*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / adverse effects
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Photography
  • Retinal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Retinal Vessels / pathology*
  • Safety


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Fluorescein