Pharmacokinetics and antiretroviral activity of lamivudine alone or when coadministered with zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected pregnant women and their offspring

J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;178(5):1327-33. doi: 10.1086/314431.


The safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity of lamivudine alone and in combination with zidovudine was studied in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and their neonates. Women received the drugs orally from week 38 of pregnancy to 1 week after delivery. Neonate therapy began 12 h after delivery and continued for 1 week. Both treatment regimens were well-tolerated in women and newborns. Lamivudine and zidovudine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women were similar to those in nonpregnant adults. Lamivudine and zidovudine freely crossed the placenta and were secreted in breast milk. Neonatal lamivudine clearance was about half that in pediatric patients; zidovudine clearance was consistent with previous reports. HIV-1 RNA could be quantified in 17 of the 20 women. At the onset of labor/delivery, mean virus load had decreased by approximately 1.5 log10 copies/mL in both treatment cohorts. Although not definitive for HIV-1 infection status, all neonates had HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of quantification at birth and at ages 1 and 2 weeks.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amniotic Fluid / chemistry
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Black People
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / metabolism*
  • HIV-1* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control*
  • Lamivudine / administration & dosage
  • Lamivudine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Lamivudine / therapeutic use*
  • Milk, Human / chemistry
  • Pregnancy
  • RNA, Viral / analysis
  • Random Allocation
  • South Africa
  • Viral Load
  • Zidovudine / administration & dosage
  • Zidovudine / therapeutic use*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • RNA, Viral
  • Lamivudine
  • Zidovudine