Cervical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding is associated with genital beta-chemokine secretion

J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;178(5):1334-42. doi: 10.1086/314433.


Forty human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women participated in a cross-sectional study of possible correlations between chemokine receptor (CCR5 and/or CCR2B) genotype, HIV-1 RNA and DNA load, and beta-chemokine levels (RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta) in blood and cervix. HIV-1 nucleic acid and beta-chemokines were found in all patient blood samples and in more than half of the cervical samples regardless of CCR5 or CCR2B genotype. High beta-chemokine concentrations were in general associated with high virus loads in blood and cervix. In the blood, the proviral DNA load was significantly correlated with the MIP-1alpha concentration, whereas the DNA load in cervix was significantly associated with the MIP-1beta concentration. The cervical viral RNA load was significantly associated with levels of all three chemokines. Thus, when HIV-1 shedding was highest in the genital tract, it was associated with other combinations of beta-chemokines than virus load in blood, suggesting that local immune reactions strongly influence virus load in the cervical compartment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cervix Uteri / metabolism
  • Cervix Uteri / virology*
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Chemokine CCL5 / metabolism
  • Chemokines, CC / metabolism*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral*
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / metabolism
  • RNA, Viral / analysis
  • Receptors, CCR2
  • Receptors, CCR5 / genetics*
  • Receptors, Chemokine*
  • Receptors, Cytokine / genetics*
  • Virus Shedding*


  • CCR2 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • Chemokines, CC
  • DNA, Viral
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
  • RNA, Viral
  • Receptors, CCR2
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Receptors, Cytokine