Familial Mediterranean Fever is one of the most frequent recessive disease in non-Ashkenazi Jews. The gene responsible for the disease (MEFV) has very recently been identified. The M694V ('MED') mutation was found in about 80% of the FMF Jewish (Iraqi and North African) chromosomes. To see if the presence of this mutation could be correlated with particular traits of the disease, we examined a number of clinical features in a panel of 109 Jewish FMF patients with 0, 1 or 2 MED mutations. We showed that homozygosity for this mutation was significantly associated with a more severe form of the disease. In homozygous patients, the disease started earlier (mean age 6.4 +/- 5 vs 13.6 +/- 8.9) and both arthritis and pleuritis were twice as frequent as in patients with one or no M694V mutation. Moreover, 3/3 patients with amyloidosis displayed two MED mutations. No association was found with fever, peritonitis, response to colchicine and erysipeloid eruption. The present result strongly suggests the potential prognostic value of the presence of this mutation.