Psychometrics for two short forms of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale

Issues Ment Health Nurs. 1998 Sep-Oct;19(5):481-94. doi: 10.1080/016128498248917.


The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) assesses the presence and severity of depressive symptoms occurring over the past week. Although it contains only 20 items, its length may preclude its use in a variety of clinical populations. This study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 shorter forms of the CES-D developed by F. J. Kohout, L. F. Berkman, D. A. Evans, and J. Cornoni-Huntley (1993): the Iowa form and the Boston form. Data were pooled from 832 women representing 6 populations. Internal consistency estimates, correlations with the original version of the CES-D, and omitted-included item correlations supported use of the Iowa form over the Boston form when a shortened version of the scale is desired. Regression statistics are provided for use in estimating scores on the original CES-D when either shortened form is used. Factor analytic results from two populations support a single-factor structure for the original CES-D as well as the short forms.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms / psychology
  • Depression / diagnosis*
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / etiology
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Psychometrics
  • Regression Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires