Entrainment of the circadian system of mammals by nonphotic cues

Chronobiol Int. 1998 Sep;15(5):425-45. doi: 10.3109/07420529808998700.


Although light is the principal zeitgeber to the mammalian circadian system, other cues can be shown to have a potent resetting effect on the clock of both adult and perinatal mammals. Nonphotic entrainment may have both biological and therapeutic significance. This review focuses on the effect of behavioral arousal as a nonphotic cue and the neurochemical circuitry that mediates arousal-induced entrainment in the adult rodent. In addition, it considers the role of nonphotic entrainment of the developing circadian system in perinatal life prior to the establishment of retinal input to the clock.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Cues
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamus / physiology
  • Light
  • Mammals / physiology*
  • Neuropeptides / physiology
  • Retina / physiology
  • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology


  • Neuropeptides