The early kinetics of antibody expression following transmucosal infection by SIV(Mne) were examined in several mucosal compartments in Macaca nemestrina. Five male-female pairs of macaques were inoculated intrarectally with SIV(Mne) E11S, a biological clone, and serially euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postinoculation. Plasma, tears, saliva, rectal secretions, and vaginal washes were collected serially and just prior to euthanasia. Both total and SIV-specific IgG and IgA levels were measured by immunoglobulin isotype-specific quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and were further examined by conventional and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) immunoblots. Virus coculture, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization assays revealed the systemic spread of virus as early as 1 week postinoculation in 8 of 10 animals. ECL immunoblots detected SIV-specific antibodies in mucosal samples collected 1 week postinoculation. The most dramatic increases in both total and SIV-specific IgA levels were detected in rectal secretion samples. In contrast, plasma and nonrectal mucosal samples from the same time points increased only slightly, suggesting that the most robust antibody response occurred at the portal of infection. Our results show that the SIV-infected macaque is an excellent model for studies designed to assess mucosal immune responses to primate lentivirus infections. Additional studies will assess the correlation between the antiviral protection afforded by candidate vaccines and mucosal antibody responses.