Several cancer genetics centres offer testing for specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with a family history of breast and ovarian cancers. Testing involves screening for three common mutations found in this population, namely BRCA1 185delAG, 5382insC and BRCA2 6174delT (Struewing et al., Nat Genet 1995: 11: 198-200; Roa et al., Nat Genet 1996: 14: 185-187; Oddoux et al., Nat Genet 1996: 14: 188-190). We have identified a large Ashkenazi Jewish kindred (W9170) with ten cases of breast cancer and four cases of ovarian carcinoma. Initially, mutation analysis for this family identified a BRCA1 185delAG mutation in the proband diagnosed with three separate primary cancers of the breast, ovary and colon. Another individual in this family diagnosed with two primary cancers of the ovary and breast, was identified as having a second mutation, BRCA1 5382insC. Subsequent work found that two sisters (cousins of the proband), both diagnosed with carcinoma of the breast, had a third mutation, BRCA2 6174delT. These three mutations have previously been found to be more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (References as above). The identification of all three mutations in one family, raised new implications for the manner in which testing and counselling should be offered. In our opinion, Ashkenazi Jewish individuals in breast-ovarian cancer families should be offered complete testing for the three common Ashkenazi Jewish mutations regardless of previous identification of one of these mutations in the family.