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. 1998 Oct;114(4):404-13.
doi: 10.1016/s0889-5406(98)70185-4.

A Three-Dimensional Computerized Mesh Diagram Analysis and Its Application in Soft Tissue Facial Morphometry

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A Three-Dimensional Computerized Mesh Diagram Analysis and Its Application in Soft Tissue Facial Morphometry

V F Ferrario et al. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. .

Abstract

A modified computerized mesh diagram analysis that allows rapid and independent quantifications of soft tissue facial size and shape in the three-dimensional space is presented. Normal references are provided, and the application of the method is also exemplified by the analysis of two maxillofacial surgical patients. The Three-Dimensional Facial Morphometry method has been used for the collection of the x, y, z coordinates of 22 soft tissue landmarks in 50 men and 50 women (all healthy young white adults). The method detects the three-dimensional coordinates of retroreflective, wireless markers positioned on selected facial landmarks with two charge-coupled device cameras, working in the infrared field. The midpoint between the right and left tragus landmarks served as the origin of the coordinate axes, and the landmark coordinates were rotated, setting the intercantheal line horizontal on both the frontal and the horizontal planes, and the Camper's plane inclined at -7.5 degrees on the sagittal plane. A standardized mesh of equidistant horizontal (dimension: half the upper face width), vertical (half the vertical projection of upper face height), and anteroposterior (half the horizontal projection of upper face depth) lines was consequently constructed. The lattice was replicated on the entire face and comprised 84 parallelepipeds. Both male and female reference meshes had a harmonious and symmetric appearance, with gender differences in facial size but not in facial shape. The standard normal reference was superimposed on the patient's tracing, and the global (size plus shape) difference was then evaluated by the calculation of the relevant displacement vectors for each soft tissue landmark. A global difference factor was calculated as the sum of the modules of all the displacement vectors. Consequently, a size normalization was performed, and the shape difference (size-standardized) was then evaluated by the calculation of new relevant displacement vectors for each landmark, as well as a shape--global difference vectors.

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