Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is required for the initiation of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is not a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), but is regulated in a similar fashion in that the Cdc7 kinase subunit is inactive in the absence of the regulatory subunit Dbf4. In contrast to what is known about CDKs, Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is shown to be an oligomer in the cell in this report. Genetic data that support this claim include interallelic complementation between several cdc7ts alleles and the cdc7T281A allele and also the results of experiments using the two-hybrid system with Cdc7 in both DNA-binding and transactivation domain plasmids. A molecular interaction between two different Cdc7 molecules was shown by using a HA-tagged Cdc7 protein that differs in size from the wild-type Cdc7 protein: an anti-HA antibody immunoprecipitates both proteins in approximately equal stoichiometry. Analysis of the native molecular weight of Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is consistent with oligomerization of the Cdc7 protein in that complexes of about 180 and 300 kDa were found. Oligomers of Cdc7 protein may exist for the purpose of allosteric regulation or to allow phosphorylation of multiple substrate protein molecules.