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Review
, 18 (1), 8-16

Anticariogenic Complexes of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Stabilized by Casein Phosphopeptides: A Review

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Review

Anticariogenic Complexes of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Stabilized by Casein Phosphopeptides: A Review

E C Reynolds. Spec Care Dentist.

Abstract

Using laboratory, animal, and human in situ caries models, investigators have shown that casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate complexes (CPP-ACP) exhibit an anticariogenic activity. The casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are produced from a tryptic digest of the milk protein casein by aggregation with calcium phosphate and purification by ultrafiltration. The CPP have a remarkable ability to stabilize calcium phosphate in solution and substantially increase the level of calcium phosphate in dental plaque. Through their multiple phosphoseryl residues, the CPP bind to forming clusters of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in metastable solution, preventing their growth to the critical size required for nucleation and precipitation. The proposed mechanism of anticariogenicity for the CPP-ACP is that they localize ACP in dental plaque, which buffers the free calcium and phosphate lon activities, thereby helping to maintain a state of supersaturation with respect to tooth enamel depressing demineralization and enhancing remineralization. The CPP-ACP, unlike fluoride, can be added to sugar-containing foods and therefore have commercial potential as an additive to foods as well as to toothpastes and mouthwashes for the control of dental caries.

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