The dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton exhibits unique immunologic properties by its ability to cause both immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity. An 83-kDa Trichophyton tonsurans allergen (Tri t 4) was previously shown to elicit distinct T lymphocyte cytokine profiles in vitro. The homologous protein, Tri r 4, was cloned from a Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. This 726-amino acid protein contained an arrangement of catalytic triad residues characteristic of the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine proteinases (Ser-Asp-His). In addition, a novel Trichophyton allergen, encoding 412 amino acids, was identified by its human IgE antibody-binding activity. Sequence similarity searches showed that this allergen, designated Tri r 2, contained all of the conserved residues characteristic of the class D subtilase subfamily (41-58% overall sequence identity). Forty-two percent of subjects with immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactions to a Trichophyton extract exhibited IgE antibody binding to a recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the carboxyl-terminal 289 amino acids of Tri r 2. Furthermore, this antigen was capable of inducing delayed type hypersensitivity skin test reactions. Our results define two distinct antigens derived from the dermatophyte Trichophyton that serve as targets for diverse immune responses in humans.