Chronic atrophic body gastritis may be induced by H. pylori. Results on the effect of H. pylori eradication therapy have been conflicting. Here, we report on the effect of eradication therapy on both body atrophy and inflammation in 7 patients. They presented with severe or moderate atrophy of the oxyntic mucosa and positive H. pylori histology (Warthin-Starry) and/or serology. Eradication was performed with a standard double or triple therapy regimen. At least 6 weeks after successful eradication therapy, patients underwent rebiopsy and histopathological evaluation of the gastric body. In all 7 patients, the grade of body gastritis improved significantly. Among the patients with severe atrophy before H. pylori eradication, 2 had normal mucosa, 3 low-grade atrophy, and one moderate atrophy after treatment. The one case with moderate atrophy before treatment had normal mucosa after H. pylori eradication. In addition, inflammatory infiltration of the mucosa cleared up in 6 cases and improved from severe to mild in one case after treatment. From these results, we conclude that in patients with histologically demonstrated H. pylori and/or positive H. pylori serology atrophic body mucosa can recover after successful eradication therapy.