Perioperative nurses are situated uniquely to promote good traffic control practices in the OR. This study was conducted to explore the effect of traffic patterns, specifically the number of people in the OR, on the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs). Researchers analyzed 2,864 clean surgical procedures performed in 1995 in an academic medical center. Duration of surgery and American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical assessment score were statistically significant risk factors for SSIs. A rising trend in SSIs was observed as the number of people in the OR increased; however, it was not statistically significant. Risk factors for SSIs must be better understood to develop more effective prevention programs.