We recently reported that formation of allopolyploid wheat was accompanied by rapid nonrandom changes in low-copy noncoding DNA sequences. In this report we show that following allopolyploidization, changes also occurred in coding sequences. Genomic DNA of nine different newly synthesized amphiploids of different ploidy levels and their parental lines was digested with five restriction enzymes and probed with 43 coding sequences. The sequences, 19 genomic and 24 cDNA sequences, are group (homoelogous) specific and represent the proximal and distal regions of the short and long arms of the seven homoeologous groups of the Triticeae. We revealed three types of changes: disappearance of a parental hybridization fragment(s), appearance of a novel fragment(s), and simultaneous disappearance of a parental fragment(s) and appearance of a novel fragment(s). No elimination of sequences took place, since in every sequence studied the parental hybridization fragments were present in at least one of the enzyme digests. Variations in pattern among individual plants of the same amphiploid, as well as a between several synthetic and natural amphiploids, indicated that at least some of the genomic changes occurred at random. Intergenomic recombination was not the cause of the observed changes. Evidence was obtained, however, that changes were also brought about by DNA methylation. Methylation may cause inactivation of genes or modify their expression levels in some of the newly synthesized amphiploid plants, leading to genetic diploidization and gene-dosage compensation and thus increasing variation among individuals.