Crm1 (XpoI) dependent nuclear export of the budding yeast transcription factor yAP-1 is sensitive to oxidative stress

Genes Cells. 1998 Aug;3(8):521-32. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2443.1998.00209.x.


Background: The yAP-1 transcription factor is crucial for the oxidative stress response of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; its activity is induced in response to oxidative stress, and as a consequence the expression of a number of target genes is enhanced. We have shown previously that yAP-1 is mainly found in the cytoplasm, but that upon the imposition of oxidative stress it localizes to the nucleus. In this study, we addressed the mechanism through which yAP-1 nuclear localization is regulated.

Results: Here we show that yAP-1 localization is mediated by active export from the nucleus, resulting from the activity of Crm1 (XpoI), a conserved protein that functions as an export receptor which recognizes the nuclear export signal (NES). When Crm1 expression was repressed, yAP-1 was localized in the nucleus and induced the expression of a yAP-1 dependent target gene. Our results also suggest that the cysteine rich domain (CRD), at the C-terminus of yAP-1, functions as an export recognition sequence. yAP-1 and Crm1 interact in vivo and this interaction is reduced in response to oxidative stress.

Conclusions: These results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism of nucleocytoplasmic transport which is dependent upon a redox sensitive nuclear export pathway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins*
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Biological Transport, Active
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Compartmentation
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Endonucleases / metabolism
  • Fungal Proteins*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Karyopherins*
  • Models, Biological
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Protein Binding
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Schizosaccharomyces
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Karyopherins
  • Pap1 protein, S pombe
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • exportin 1 protein
  • Endonucleases
  • nes protein, Staphylococcus aureus