Respiratory health and immunological profile of poultry workers

S Afr Med J. 1998 Sep;88(9):1110-7.


Objectives: To examine work-related respiratory symptoms in poultry workers, and to test for immunologically mediated responses to poultry-related agents.

Design: A cross-sectional survey of differentially exposed poultry workers and unexposed blue-collar workers.

Setting: Three poultry farms and a poultry plant in Gauteng (exposed workers) and a municipal workers' clinic in Johannesburg (controls).

Participants: 134 poultry workers (85.4% of all eligible workers) and 122 controls (> 95% response rate).

Outcome measures: Respiratory symptoms plus allergy and hypersensitivity to poultry agents identified by skin-prick tests, and by the presence of specific IgE and IgG enzyme-linked immunoflow assay and nonspecific (radial immunodiffusion) antibodies.

Results: Smoking habits and atopic status were similar in the poultry workers and the controls. Symptoms were very common in poultry workers, for example work-related cough in 32% and work-related wheeze in 23% of highly exposed workers. Significantly more poultry workers than controls complained of chest symptoms (increasing with increasing exposure), and of eye, skin and nose irritation at work. More poultry workers than controls had symptoms consistent with asthma (e.g. 3%, 4%, 13% and 11% in controls and subjects with low, medium and high exposure, respectively), and symptom complexes associated with organic dust exposure. Five poultry workers had positive skin-prick test reactions to poultry-specific antigens, but none of the unexposed controls reacted. More poultry workers than controls had positive immunodiffusion test reactions to chicken feed, feathers and serum, and IgE to chicken faeces. There was no association between immunological status and respiratory symptoms.

Conclusion: We found a very high prevalence of exposure-related symptoms in poultry workers; improved hazard control is strongly indicated. Tests of allergy and hypersensitivity were associated with exposure, but not with disease. The possibility of useful tests of sensitisation has not been excluded; a prospective study design is likely to be more rewarding than cross-sectional approaches such as in this study.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants, Occupational / adverse effects
  • Animals
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Chickens*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Tests / methods
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Occupational Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology
  • Occupational Diseases / immunology*
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / immunology*
  • South Africa / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Air Pollutants, Occupational