We describe a new polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), an important enzyme in human physiology and behavior. The polymorphism, which is located 1.2 kb upstream of the MAOA coding sequences, consists of a 30-bp repeated sequence present in 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 copies. The polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrium with other MAOA and MAOB gene markers and displays significant variations in allele frequencies across ethnic groups. The polymorphism has been shown to affect the transcriptional activity of the MAOA gene promoter by gene fusion and transfection experiments involving three different cell types. Alleles with 3.5 or 4 copies of the repeat sequence are transcribed 2-10 times more efficiently than those with 3 or 5 copies of the repeat, suggesting an optimal length for the regulatory region. This promoter region polymorphism may be useful as both a functional and an anonymous genetic marker for MAOA.