Pleuropulmonary disease was seen in 50 of 62 patients (81%) with proven tularemia. Radiographic findings included patchy subsegmental air space opacities (74%), hilar lymphadenopathy (32%), and pleural effusion (30%). Less common manifestations were air space opacification of an entire lobe or segment, cavitation, oval opacities, pericardial effusion, linear opacities and septal lines, apical and miliary disease resembling tuberculosis, a mediastinal mass, empyema with bronchopleural fistula, and residual cystic changes, calcification, and fibrosis. Pleuropulmonary tularemia may be easily misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, neoplastic diseases, and occasionally cardiac or other pericardial disease. It should be considered whenever patients from endemic areas present a perplexing radiographic and clinical picture. Such patients should have the benefit of a serologic examination for tularemia, since this disease may be effectively controlled with appropriate antibiotics.