Beta-carotene with vitamins E and C offers synergistic cell protection against NOx

FEBS Lett. 1998 Oct 9;436(3):387-9. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(98)01173-9.


The peroxynitrite anion and the nitrogen dioxide (radical) are important toxic species which can arise in vivo from nitric oxide. Both in vivo and in vitro cell protection is demonstrated for beta-carotene in the presence of vitamin E and vitamin C. A synergistic protection is observed compared to the individual anti-oxidants and this is explained in terms of an electron transfer reaction in which the beta-carotene radical is repaired by vitamin C.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Drug Synergism
  • Free Radicals
  • Humans
  • Jurkat Cells
  • Lymphocytes / cytology*
  • Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • Nitrates / toxicity*
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / toxicity*
  • Oxidants / toxicity
  • Vitamin E / pharmacology*
  • beta Carotene / pharmacology*


  • Antioxidants
  • Free Radicals
  • Nitrates
  • Oxidants
  • beta Carotene
  • Vitamin E
  • peroxynitric acid
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • Nitrogen Dioxide