We investigated the integrated cardiovascular responses of 15 human subjects to the acute gravitational changes (micro- and hypergravity portions) of parabolic flight. Measurements were made with subjects quietly seated and while subjects performed controlled Valsalva maneuvers. During quiet, seated, parabolic flight, mean arterial pressure increased during the transition into microgravity but decreased as microgravity was sustained. The decrease in mean arterial pressure was accompanied by immediate reflexive increases in heart rate but by absent (or later-than-expected) reflexive increases in total vascular resistance. Mean arterial pressure responses in Valsalva phases IIl, III, and IV were accentuated in hypergravity relative to microgravity (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P < 0. 05, respectively), but accentuations differed qualitatively and quantitatively from those induced by a supine-to-seated postural change in 1 G. This study is the first systematic evaluation of temporal and Valsalva-related changes in cardiovascular parameters during parabolic flight. Results suggest that arterial baroreflex control of vascular resistance may be modified by alterations of cardiopulmonary, vestibular, and/or other receptor activity.